Small fires in the hottest chemical enterprises an

2022-09-21
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With the development of society, the application of chemical products has penetrated into all fields of people's production and life, and small chemical enterprises are increasing day by day; Most of the raw materials and finished products of chemical production are flammable, explosive or toxic, and the production process is carried out under high temperature, high pressure, toxic and other conditions, which is very prone to death and injury, such as fire and explosion, and can adapt to various performance malignant accidents of testing materials. Doing a good job in safety production is not only a necessary condition to ensure the smooth production of enterprises, but also of great significance to social stability. In the production of small chemical enterprises, due to the corrosivity of some chemical raw materials, the equipment and management are easy to be damaged. In addition, the fluctuation of production pressure and mechanical vibration will cause the damage of pipeline equipment and pressure vessels, which is easy to cause running, emitting, dripping, leakage and explosion leakage accidents. In addition, due to the flammability and explosion of raw materials, fire and explosion accidents are very easy to occur in case of open fire; The toxicity of raw materials has greatly hindered the fire fighting work. Therefore, once a fire accident occurs in a small chemical enterprise, the situation will be difficult to control. At present, the main factors causing the fire risk of small enterprises are:

1. The production plant does not comply with the fire safety regulations. Many small chemical enterprises, because of their short-term investment behavior, often rent other abandoned plants for production, and fail to design the structure and layout of plants according to the needs of chemical process flow and relevant national specifications. Therefore, there are congenital fire hazards in fire separation, ventilation, leakage prevention, explosion-proof pressure relief, fire-fighting facilities, etc. On April 1st, 1997, a fire broke out in Shandong Qingdao guanglai Chemical Co., Ltd. because the EPS production workshop was a temporary building and had not been approved and accepted by the public security fire protection agency, leaving many serious fire hazards, such as improper workshop location, insufficient building fire separation, insufficient workshop fire separation, and low workshop fire resistance rating. The fire spread rapidly after the fire occurred, making it difficult to put it out in time, resulting in a direct economic loss of 1.17 million yuan

2. explosion proof equipment and electrical appliances are not selected. Due to the flammability, reactivity and toxicity of raw materials in chemical production, the basic processing method is to adopt mixing, stirring, quenching, some chemical combination, decomposition and other reactions in the pressure windows such as the reaction kettle. Some raw materials and reaction intermediates are flammable and explosive dangerous chemicals, which exist in liquid or gaseous form, and are prone to leakage. If some process facilities and electrical circuits are not explosion-proof or have not been explosion-proof treated, The leaked flammable liquid or gas is prone to explosion accidents in case of mechanical friction or electrical sparks. On May 16, 1996, a worker in Shandong Penglai Chemical General Factory used a non explosion-proof portable sewing machine for packaging. The electric spark ignited the combustible gas and caused a fire. Two people were seriously injured and 88T polystyrene was burned, with a direct economic loss of 1.35 million yuan

3. no anti-static measures were taken. In the chemical production industry, anti-static measures are easy to be ignored. Pipelines in the chemical production industry are connected by steel pipe threads. The flow of chemical solvents in pipelines and equipment will generate static electricity due to friction. If static electricity cannot be removed in time, it will cause charge accumulation and spark discharge, which will cause fire accidents. On July 28, 1997, a fire broke out in Guangdong Dongguan Juncheng Chemical Co., Ltd. because armored benzene was stored at the flammable and explosive raw material conveying place on the second floor of the workshop. When the iron barrel was filled with toluene, because the toluene flow was large, the flow rate was fast, and a large amount of static electricity was generated in the barrel. Because the electrostatic device in the production workshop was not directly grounded, and the contact was poor, the electrostatic device could not release the electrostatic charge in time, resulting in the accumulation and discharge of static electricity, which ignited toluene, The direct economic loss reached 1.305 million yuan

4. Employees have not received fire safety training. Most small chemical enterprises are private and will provide more support or joint ventures for further developing the express bag business. Because of the employment system, the employees are highly mobile and cannot be relatively fixed, so many employees fail to receive fire safety training in time, do not understand the characteristics of dangerous chemicals, and are not familiar with the operating procedures and precautions, so they rush to work and operate, which is very likely to cause accidents due to illegal operations, And after the accident, if you don't know the use of fire-fighting facilities, fire fighting methods and escape methods, it is very easy to form a small fire and cause an accident. On May 4, 1998, due to the illegal operation of employees in Chongqing Changshou Chemical General Plant, welders illegally welded in the first-class no fire zone in the plant, igniting flammable and explosive chemicals in the sewage diversion tank, resulting in 12 deaths, 6 injuries, and a direct economic loss of 71000 yuan

in view of these problems, the fire prevention of small chemical enterprises should be:

1. Strictly control the review of plant construction and equipment selection. The production plant of small chemical enterprises should be designed according to the requirements of relevant national specifications and many problems that appear in the production union, and fully consider factors such as fire separation, ventilation, leakage prevention, explosion-proof pressure relief, fire-fighting facilities, etc. At the same time, the explosion-proof requirements of equipment and electricity and the explosion-proof treatment of electrical circuits should be strictly controlled to eliminate congenital fire hazards

2. Check the anti-static treatment. All chemical production equipment should be properly grounded. The grounding point should be firm. When the resistance value of the threaded connection is too large, the jumper should be fully used to make the grounding resistance value of equipment and pipelines in the whole production process not greater than the specification requirements

3. Strictly control safety training. The employees in the chemical production industry should be recycled, and fire safety education should be carried out frequently, so that they can master the safety operation procedures of the industry and work with certificates. At the same time, targeted fire-fighting drills are often carried out to make employees familiar with the basic methods of fire fighting in the industry. When a fire occurs, it can be put out quickly and effectively to avoid a small fire brewing a major disaster

4. Strictly control the management. The safety production management of small chemical enterprises is extremely important. It is necessary to carry out regular safety inspection and shutdown maintenance, eliminate fire hazards in time, strengthen the management of personnel, and strictly prevent illegal operations and violations of fire safety management

(Zhang Tuo)

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